domenica 5 maggio 2019

Italians and Genetics


The overwhelming majority of Italian males belong to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b which is standard amongst most West European populations. Haplogroup R1b is the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe and parts of sub-Saharan Central Africa (e.g. around Chad and Cameroon). R1b is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, North Africa, South Asia, and Siberia. While Western Europe is dominated by the R1b1a2 (R-M269) branch of R1b, the Chadic-speaking area in Africa is dominated by a branch known as R1b1c (R-V88).According to data found through different sources, samples, and studies by Eurpedia, the percentages of Y-DNA haplogroups observed in Italy were:

R1 (51.5%: 49% R1b and 2.5% R1a)

Haplogroup R1: Possible time of origin: 12,500–25,700 years BP (before present). Possible place of origin: Central Asia or South Asia. Ancestor: R-M207. Descendants: R-M420, R-M343. Defining mutations: M173. 

J (20%: 18% J2 and 2% J1)

Haplogroup J: Possible time of origin: 31,700±12,800 Years BP. Possible place of origin: Arabian Peninsula. Ancestor: IJ. Descendants : J-M267, J-M172. Defining mutations: 12f2.1, L134, M304, P209, S6/L60, S34, S35.

E1b1b (11%)

Haplogroup E-M215: Possible time of origin: approx. 22,400 years BP.Possible place of origin: Eastern Africa. Ancestor: E-P2. Descendants: Haplogroup E-M35 and E-M281. Defining mutations: M215, most often found in conjunction with M35.

G (7%)

Haplogroup G: Possible time of origin: 14,000-30,000 years BP. Possible place of origin: Caucasus. Ancestor: F. Descendants: G1, G2 and their subgroups. Defining mutations: L116, L154, L204, L240, L269, L402, L520, L521, L522, L523, L605, L769, L770, L836, L837, M201, P257/U6, Page94/U17, U2, U3, U7, U12, U20, U21, U23, U33.

I (6.5%: 2.5% I1, 3% I2 + I2a and 1% I2b)

Haplogroup I-M170: Possible time of origin: 25,000-30,000 years BP. Possible place of origin: Europe or Southwest Asia. Ancestor: IJ. Descendants: I*, I1, I2. Defining mutations: L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179. Highest frequencies Bosnia and Herzegovina 65%.

T (4%)

Haplogroup T-M184: Possible time of origin: 19,000-34,000 years BP. Possible place of origin: West Asia. Ancestor: LT. Descendants: T-M193. Defining mutations: M184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445. Highest frequencies Somalis from Ethiopia’s Northern Dir tribes, Kurru, Bauris, Ogaden, Armenian Sasuntzis, Chians, Arabs from Somalia, Saccensi Sicilians, Fulbe, Eivissencs, Northeastern Portuguese Jews, Rajus, Mahli, Zoroastrians in Kerman, Bakhtiaris/Lurs, Southern Egyptians. 

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